Skip navigation.

Permissions and copyright

With the exception of source code created for your use in our tutorials, the written and visual contents of this magazine are protected by copyright.

Free source gives away CSS styles, JavaScript, PHP and Perl scripts, XHTML markup techniques, and other bits of “source code” for the use of its readers. You may freely copy, paste, and modify any of this code for use on your own web projects large or small, commercial or non-commercial. You need not ask permission to do so. However we kindly request that you credit or its authors. [Disclaimer].

Protected content

You cannot reproduce our articles online or in print without first obtaining written permission. Contact us; we will contact the author to obtain his or her consent.

Images, including those used in tutorials (example), cannot be reproduced outside this magazine, except by the author or designer who created them.

You may adapt elements of our CSS in your own projects, but the unique combination of images, colors, sizes, typography, and positioning (“the design”) is copyright 2003 Magazine and Happy Cog Studios and may not be reproduced.


Permission to translate our articles into languages other than English is generally given freely, at no charge to the translator. The procedure is the same: obtain written permission.

In online translations, include a link to the original page at In print media, include the blurb that follows:

This article was originally published by Magazine ( It appears by permission of the author and

Standard disclaimer Magazine, its staff, and its contributing authors warrant that source code given away in tutorials or used to build this magazine has worked for us but we do not claim that it will work in every situation: For instance, we do not claim that a PHP script will work in an ASP environment, or that a sophisticated CSS style sheet will work correctly in a five-year-old web browser.

ALA, its staff, and its contributors cannot be held responsible for inept or inappropriate use of source code, or for failure of source code to perform as expected for any reason. It is offered as-is.

Before implementing any ALA code, be sure to read the discussion forum associated with the article in which you found the code. If there are known problems with the code — for instance, if a technique sometimes fails in a particular browsing environment — ALA readers will likely have discussed the problem in the forum. Some may even have come up with a solution that makes what was described in the article even more useful.